In Germany, school-leavers generally prepare to enter working life by way of either a study programme or practical vocational training (“dual training system”).
The labour authority (Employment Agency) steps in to arrange practical training placements where individual attempts have been unsuccessful.
Child and youth services AND the Employment Agency are mutually dependent on one another for:
This is done in coordination with the Employment Agency, providers of in-company and external vocational training, and employment services (Article 13  Social Code Book 8).
For most people, paid work is the basis for safeguarding an independent livelihood. Young people are prepared for working life throughout schooling and vocational training. For a growing number of young people, the path of education leads them to university. But most young people who leave school without having attained university entrance standard or equivalent go on to vocational training. This can be with a technical college as part of full-time vocational training (principally the care and education professions) or as part of a special dual work-study programme available under the German training system. The dual study programme quintessentially uses two different learning environments – the school and the company – combining theoretical learning in the former and practical training in the latter. Trainees spend 3-4 days a week with the company and 2-3 days at school. The company pays the trainees a wage while they learn.
In 2019, 511,761 young people entered university education and 730,260 people took up vocational training designed to lead to full professional qualification, of which 492,276 were on dual study courses as described above and 186,048 were in full-time vocational education. The second form of vocational education available in Germany is (full-time) school-based vocational training, principally for the healthcare, nursing and various technical assistance professions. Unlike the dual study model, full-time vocational education is unpaid and in fact most students must pay high training fees. A further 51,936 young people took up other types of vocational training (e.g., in the civil service).
These figures show that the system of training and professional practice takes place largely outside of youth services. Having said that, Article 13 of Book 8 of the Social Code (SGB VIII) establishes interfaces (defined by youth services as "accompanying socio-educational support") in the event that the current performance of socially disadvantaged or individually impaired young people (for instance secondary modern school/special school leavers with poor final grades; young people with "learning disabilities"; school/training dropouts; young people with socialisation deficits, deviant behaviours and addiction problems; young people born outside of Germany with integration problems) renders them unable to gain access to this training system and at risk of being marginalised from society permanently due to their inability to enter the working world.
An indicator of the size of this action area is the number of young people who have failed to find a practical vocational training placement after leaving school and who find themselves in what is known as the "transition system" (a catch-all term for: Federal Employment Agency schemes to ensure employment readiness, introductory qualifications, students at technical schools but without a placement, students in a basic vocational training year or preparatory vocational training year/career entry classes, and students without a training contract at vocational schools). 255,282 young people, or 25.9% of the entire vocational education system, were in the transition system in 2019. Around 75% of young people who did not and around 41.8% who did complete secondary modern school education were picked up by the transition system.